Kidney Disease

10% of the World's Population Suffers from Chronic Kidney Disease.

Kidney or Renal disease refers to temporary or permanent damage to the kidneys that result in loss of normal kidney function. Renal failure can be a progressive disease or a temporary one depending on the cause and available treatment options. In renal failure, the kidneys undergo cellular death and are unable to filter wastes, produce urine or maintain the fluid balance of the body. This causes a build-up of toxins which can affect the blood, brain and heart, as well as cause other complications.

Disease States

Acute Renal Failure

Occurs suddenly and is usually initiated by underlying causes, for example dehydration, infection, serious injury to the kidney or the chronic use of over-the-counter pain medications. Acute renal failure is often reversible with no lasting damage. In such situation, renal function may be restored by treating the primary disease that is responsible for the damage, or by treating the kidneys with medication.

Chronic Renal Failure

Patients may not show any symptoms until the kidneys are extremely damaged. It may be caused by other conditions, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, and can worsen over time, especially when treatment is delayed. With treatment, a person with kidney failure can live a relatively normal life. In cases of end-stage renal disease, patients will require dialysis and/or a kidney transplant.

5 stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

  • STAGE 1


    Very mild loss of kidney function

    No symptoms

    Patients with diabetes, hypertension, obesity at risk

  • STAGE 2


    Mild loss of kidney function

    May not have any visible symptoms

    Patients with diabetes, hypertension, obesity at risk

  • STAGE 3


    Moderate loss of kidney function

    May have edema, fatigue, backache

    Diet, medication, lifestyle changes recommended

  • STAGE 4


    Severe loss of kidney function

    Stage 3+ nausea, appetite loss, insomnia

    Renal specialist required for care planning

  • STAGE 5


    End Stage Renal Disease [ESRD]

    Stage 4+ Anaemia, reduced urine output

    Treatment options include dialysis and kidney transplant

CKD and ESRD Overview

1 in 10 people worldwide are estimated to have CKD
and 9 in 10 of those don’t know they have it

4 Million

people globally suffer from ESRD


of diabetic patients develop CKD and this is the most common cause of ESRD


of patients receiving dialysis in in-centre facilities live in upper-middle income countries

CKD Unawareness


with severe CKD are unaware of having the disease


with mild CKD are unaware of having the disease

People needing dialysis

14.5 Million

people are expected to need dialysis or transplant by 2030

5.4 Million

people are expected to receive it

Dialysis cost


1 year cost for in-centre dialysis for a US patient


1 year cost for home dialysis for a US patient


COVID-19 pandemic has triggered more patients to move their dialysis from in-centre to home

Treatment Options


In-Centre Dialysis


Home Dialysis


Kidney Transplant

Dialysis does not cure renal failure, but instead keeps a person alive by performing the crucial functions of the kidneys. A person may have to undergo dialysis as often as several times a day or as little as weekly, depending on the severity of renal failure. A person with acute, reversible renal failure may need dialysis while the kidneys recover.


There are two modalities in renal dialysis:

Key Challenges of Existing
Treatment Modalities

Large Volume of Dialysate

  • 1 PD Patient – up to 3,650L PD solution per year
  • 1 HD Patient – up to 18,420L dialysate solution per year

Bulky Dialysis Machines

  • A typical PD machine weighs 15 – 20 kg
  • A typical HD machine weighs 50 – 80 kg

Limited Mobility & Freedom

  • PD patients are attached to the machine for 10 – 12 hrs each time
  • HD patients have to visit the center 3 times a week, dialyse for 4 – 5 hrs each time

Loss of Productivity

  • In the US, dialysis results in a loss of productivity of US $10 – US $13 bn annually

Read more on how our technology and products address the above challenges!